Classes in fascism: an excerpt from Ettore Rosboch’s The Fascist concept of Economics

In a holistic view of the economic system, the community of citizens seems to be made up of four main classes: producers, intermediaries, consumers and depositors, each performing its function but often consisting of the same individuals belonging to more than one class at a time: each depositor, producer or intermediary is also a consumer at the same time. If we deal only with the production of material goods, the composition changes to producers, citizens who are not producers, but useful or necessary for production (military, teachers, officials, artists, etc.) and unproductive citizens. In turn, the class of producers according to a specific function is divided into subclasses: capitalists, managers, workers of physical or intellectual labor (composition may vary depending on national interests), or, depending on the object, agriculture, industry, trade, transport and the Bank. We could go on and on in terms of classification, but here it is enough to show the complexity of modern social organization. Each of these many classes and subclasses has its own interests and aspirations, which both coincide and conflict with the interests of other groups. The conflict is most acute in the area of profit sharing, as each group seeks to ensure maximum benefit, even in spite of the peculiarities of the distribution of capital. It is also possible to recall how many economic disputes between workers and entrepreneurs in each country have occurred over many decades and how often there is a divergence of interests between, say, industry and agriculture. (…) Fascism is also an integral economic and social doctrine, which has a fundamentally idealistic and spiritual content. Fascism attaches to the production phenomenon all the importance it has, but it also takes into account other elements that constitute a single complex of the national economy, seeks to coordinate the interests of all and coordinate within the fascist state as often conflicting interests of various participants in production, and the interests of production and consumption, production and savings. Individualistic sentiments are very strong in the community of people and, consequently, in economic associations, which brings damage to absolutely all social categories. It is not uncommon in modern Europe to see employers neglecting workers and waiting for rescue or assistance in prosperity from the state in the form of customs protection or tax benefits, as well as workers, which sometimes require excessive wage increases without sufficient increase in production efficiency. (…) Distribution of income in the sphere of production, which fascism considers as a single complex, the elements of which: capital, management and labor – must act harmoniously and disciplined to improve the well-being of people and, consequently, of the entire nation state.

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