After the end of the second world war in 1945, the remaining Italian Fascist, German National Socialist and their allies were in complete disarray. Most of the leadership, and top intellectuals either being dead, in prison, completely disillusioned with Fascism or National Socialism or retired from politics all together. Those who remained who still were nationalist would try to rebuild their movements and rebrand. Some in the Western World still proclaimed to be Fascist or National Socialist, others trying to move on to better lands. Notable neo fascist and nationalist groups being British Union Movement led former leader of the British Union of Fascist and National Socialist Oswald Mosely, the Italian Social Movement founded by Giorgio Almirante, German Socialist Reich Party led by former National Socialist German General Otto Remer, the German Reich Party led by Adolf Von Thadden the Pan European group Jeune Europe led by former Belgian SS soldier Jean Francis Thirart and many more.
Many of these groups advocated for the idea of Pan Europe or United Europe nation that would unite the continent and would serve as a third power that would neither be aligned with the USSR or the USA. These group would go on to form in the early 50s the National Party of Europe being a coalition of several German, Italian, Belgian and British groups. Despite the claims of being for neither Moscow or Washington many of them would end up favoring one or the other. Along with both the Soviet Union and America understanding the use of these groups to sway the tides of the Cold War in Europe. In Soviet dominated East the Right was just as divided amongst former Axis as well as those who were nationalist and anti-capitalist but were opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. Same could be said for the rest of the Nationalist, Conservative, and Fascist scenes across the world. This article like part 1 will go over these Pro Soviet Right, individuals, groups, and the conditions they came about in as much as possible. Of Course, like part one not all of them will be covered but many of them will be. Like Part 1 we will start with the Soviet Union then work our way to Europe then to the Middle East then the Americas.
The Soviet Union 1945 to 1991
Despite the dissolving of Nikolay Ustryalov National Bolsheviks in the late 1930s. Soviet Nationalism was not only tolerated during and after the second world war but was actively encourage by the Soviet Union. World War 2 was not only portrayed as a war between Nazis against Communists but as a war for national survival with World War 2 being called the Great Patriotic War. The Soviets embraced Russian historical figures such as Ivan the Terrible, and Peter the Great, historical symbols and even formed an alliance with the Russian Orthodox Church. The most extreme part of this new nationalism was the deportation of ethnic groups that were consider disloyal by the Soviet State such as the Tatars and Germans. This was all done under the leadership of Joseph Stalin. Stalin was already moving the Soviet Union in a more national direction in the 1930s with his Socialism in One Country policy. This was all accelerated when National Socialist Germany Invaded the Soviet Union in 1940 with the Soviet Government needing to energize the Soviet People. Weather Stalin was doing this not only out of necessity but a genuine Nationalistic feeling within Stalin is still disputed to this day. However, what is clear is this policy on Nationalism remained after the second world war. Stalin also encourage ethnic Russians to move into other parts of the Soviet Union that were not Russian due to the decline of population in these areas like Ukraine due to the German Invasion. Stalin even made it were the Russian Language was taught in every Soviet school. Stalin by the end of his life even launched a purge against those he deemed to be cosmopolitan who were mostly Jews. All of this of course made some Russian enemies of the Soviet Union reconsider their opinions such as the leader of the Manchurian based Pro Axis Russian Fascist Party Konstantin Rodzaevsky who even wrote a letter to Stalin about how he was misled about him, and how his group was different from the other axis groups and how Stalin was a true fighter against the “Jewish Threat.” Rodzaevsky would go back to Soviet Union with the government promising that he would be forgiven for all his wrong doings however he would be quickly arrested under charges of terrorism and subversion and later executed along with other White Emigrates leaders in 1946.
Despite the death of Stalin in 1953 and liberalization/ destalinization period that followed with Stalin successor Nikita Khrushchev. Nationalist elements still existed throughout the Soviet Union especially amongst high-ranking members of the Soviet Military and Government, who were completely hostile to this liberalization that started under Khrushchev. Some notable military personal and government officials who held these Nationalist views our Colonel General Albert Makashov, people’s deputy Sergey Baburin, First Secretary of Komsomol Gennady Zyuganov, and Soviet General Valdislav Achalov. These men would go on to be strong opponents of liberalization and Mikhail Gorbachev the last leader of Soviet Union, who they saw as destabilizing the country. Both Makashov and Achalov would support the 1991 coup against Gorbachev in hopes of turning everything around but failed. Zyuganov was a leading critic of Gorbachev and liberalization at the time and Baburin would vote against the disillusionment of the Soviet Union that same year. All these men would go on to be major players in the post-soviet Russia opposition of the Neo Liberal President Boris Yeltsin.
Even among some Soviet intellectuals and writers such as Valentin Rasputin, and Vasily Belov had similar views on Nationalism, anti-capitalism and opposition to Gorbachev and Yeltsin but tended to have a more agrarian, ecological and peasant orientated world view and would adopt more monarchist positions after the end of Soviet Union with the exception Rasputin. All be it both of them would go on to side with National Communist against Gorbachev and Yeltsin before and after the collapse of USSR with Rasputin and Zyuganov going on to sign an open letter titled “A Word to The People” a deeply nationalist indictment of Gorbachev and Yeltsin policies that was leading to the Soviet Union collapse. The letter was also seen as one of the first calls to arms against Gorbachev with many signers supporting the August Coup. However, with Gorbachev reforms weaking the power of the Soviet government both geo politically and internally along with the coup failing caused the Soviet Union to collapse later that year. It should be noted that both the Nationalistic Communist, Conservatives intellectuals and Military personal were also Anti-Zionist and arguably antisemitic with some like Colonel General Makashov believing that Zionist forces had been behind the demonization and destabilization of the Soviet Union and Russia. At the same time Valentin Rasputin has counter these claims made against him sayings his words were taken out of context.
It should also be noted that Eurasianist Philosopher Lev Gumilyov was also writing around this time. While Gumilyov was considered a dissident in the Soviet Union with his ideas being consider dangerous would go on to influence some within the Pro Soviet anti-Yeltsin opposition after the fall of the Soviet Union most notably Russian Intellectual, founder of the 4th Political Theory and the National Bolshevik Party Alexander Dugin who along with the other founder of party Eduard Limonov was also a dissident in the Soviet Union with Dugin at the time being a National Socialist out of spite for the Soviet Union rather than being a fan of Hitler. Dugin would also take his son to go spite on Vladimir Lenin statue and Limonov was forced to live in exile for a time in America and later France for anti-Soviet activities. Dugin would also leave the Soviet Union in late 80s to France to meet with fellow right-wing intellectuals such as Jean Francois Thiriart and Alain De Benoist. However, both Liminov and Dugin by the end of Soviet Union lifetime realized that Russia would be in far worse and weaker position with the USSR dissolving.
After World War 2 the USSR had expanded its influence throughout Eastern Europe with communist parties taking power almost immediately afterwards. This of course put many nationalists, conservatives, and remnants of the Axis in a very difficult position. Some like the Pro Axis Clerical Fascist of the Romanian Iron Guard, the Croatian Ustasha now going by the name The Crusaders and the Polish resistance group the Cursed Soldiers made up of a mixture of different conservative, nationalist and anti-communist ideologies continued their fight against the communist with some of these insurgencies lasting into the 1960s. There was also many former Axis and right-wing groups who were willing to work from within Communist governments seeing socialism and collaboration with the Soviet Union as the way forward for a better future for their respective countries. Unlike previous times where communist rejected their support, in many places the communist embraced their former enemies with open arms forming coalitions with these groups and encouraging nationalistic writings. Many of these communist government saw this as a way of swaying more religious and conservative minded people to socialism and making them feel like they had a place in this new society instead of having them drift to anti-communist causes that would be used against the Communist governments.
One notable example is the East German Nationalist and conservative socialist National Democratic Party of Germany founded by former NSADP/SA Wilhelm Adam who fought in the battle of Stalingrad and was captured by Soviet Troops. Adam during his time in Soviet Union became a member of the National Committee of Free Germany a group funded by the Soviet Union to make propaganda against National Socialist Germany and to appeal to captured German soldiers through nationalist, conservative, and anti-western appeals. There are of course other examples of Right-wing parties such as the Christian Democratic Union of East Germany, the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union, and United Peoples Party of Poland. While these parties did exist and had many seats in parliament they would very rarely ever go up against the communist line and many times those who did such as Chairman Jakob Kaiser of the Christian Democratic Union who did support nationalization and land redistribution but was still critical of the communists was forced out of the party and left to West Germany soon after.
Outside of political parties in East Germany some prominent members of the Conservative Revolution and other anti-Hitler elements of nationalist and conservative movements were allowed or invited to live in the country such as National Bolshevik resistances writer Ernst Niekisch, Christian democrat Jakob Kaiser, (before being kicked out), cofounder of West Germany Christian Democratic Union before fleeing from West Germany Gunther Gereke and Black Front leader Otto Strasser who declined twice. In other places like Poland some members of Polish Catholic Falange resistance group like their leader Boleslaw Piasecki founded the Catholic PAX association which integrated Catholics into the communist society and controlled the Polish branch of the Caritas Internationalis a development and social service organization. The group also supported the government persecution of suspected anticommunist and subversive catholic clergy men.
In Nicolae Ceausescu Romania some of the influential writers at the time in the country were nationalist such as the anti-Semitic Eugen Barbu and Corneliu Vadim Tudor who would after the fall of communism found the Greater Romania Party. At first a National Communist but later simply a ultra nationalist party that was the second largest party throughout the 1990s and early 2000s. Nicolae Ceausescu in many was very similar to the National Bolsheviks since he advocated for a heavily nationalistic form of communism along with ending the anti-religious campaign that took place before he came to power and even started to rehabilitate some right wing figures such as the historian and medievalist Nicolae Lorga who was executed by the Iron Guard and historian Eugen Lovinescu all be it there more anticommunist works were still censored.
The reason Ceausescu wanted Romania independent from Moscow so that it would not be a satellite nation but a nation that could be friendly with both the west and east. Ceausescu also did not want Romania to end up like Czechoslovakia did in 1968. This independent foreign policy got him dub as the west favorite communist because of his more friendly ties to Western countries. Ceausescu even met American President Richard Nixon along with other western leaders. That said he still had strong ties with many anti-western governments such as Gaddafi Libya, Fidel Castro Cuba, and Kim Ill Sung North Korea. North Korea ideology of Juche was very similar to Romania National Communism with Ceausescu taking influence from North Korea. One of the most influential National Bolsheviks in Western Europe Jean Francois Thiriart even met Ceausescu at one point, who Thiriart was a great admirer of, which leads us to Western Europe.
Western Europe and the Cold War
In Western Europe the Pro Soviet Right camp can be broken up into two camps the Post World War 2 Fascist/ National Socialist camp who obviously took most of their influence from Italian Fascist and German National Socialist thinkers but also some took influence from other groups like the Conservative Revolution and the Italian Traditionalist Julius Evola for example. This group includes people like Ernst Remer and Francis Parker Yockey. Then the second camp being the New Right or what I dubbed the New Conservative Revolutionaries who took most of their influence from the German Conservative Revolution but also from the Italian Elitist School, French Syndicalist Georges Sorel, and the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci. This Group includes people like Jean Francois Thirart and Alain De Benoist. We will first go over the Fascist/ National Socialists.
In Germany and Italy there was both Italian Fascist and German National Socialist who took funding from the Soviet Union or by the local communist party. In West Germany this was Socialist Reich Party led by German Wehrmacht Officer Otto Ernst Remer. Remer unlike his east German counter parts who switched sides in World War 2 was a loyal commander to Adolf Hitler and to the ideas of National Socialism. He took part in the invasion of Poland and helped to bring down the July Coup attempt against the NSADP in 1944.
After being released from prison in 1947 Remer founded the Socialist Reich Party in 1949 which gain some seats in local government, in legislative body in Germany and got over 360 thousand votes in lower saxony and Schleswig Heistien. The party espoused the ideas of National Socialism, reuniting Germany and believed that the Holocaust was nothing more than allied propaganda. The party was strongly critical of the USA and Britain and went as far as to say they would side with the Soviets if war broke out. All of this of course ended up getting the party banned in 1952. However, this is not the end of Remer story. Remer would go on to advise Pan Arab Nationalist/ anti-Zionist Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. He would also go sell weapons to the Algerian National Liberation Front and to Castro Cuba. All these governments Remer supported aligned with the Soviet Union during the cold war. Remer would return to West Germany still espousing Anti-NATO sentiments, German Reunification, alliance with the Soviet Union, and anti-Semitic ideals. He would be arrested in 1992 for inciting racial hatreds. He would end up fleeing to Spain and died there in 1997.
Italy just like in Germany both before and after World War 2 had elements of the National Fascist Party and government who were sympathetic to the Soviet Union or at least had more radical socialist economic views. Before Benito Mussolini and his Fascist Movement came to power. Mussolini who was a follower of French Syndicalist Georges Sorel had already cooperated many syndicalist such as Edmondo Rossoni, Ugo Spirito, Sergio Panizio and many other who became a core part of the Fascist movement in Italy. The Fascist Syndicalist as they were called were more radical than the average fascist, with starting strikes and calling for worker and union control of the factories which worried many within the Italian Industrial capitalist class. Mussolini even tried to form an alliance with the Italian Socialists with the signing of the Pact of Pacification in 1921 however this fell apart soon after as many of the more conservative Fascist leaders like Italo Balbo rejected it which restarted clashes between the Fascists and the socialist. Few years later in the mid-1920s the Fascist Syndicalist would lose out to the more reformist and class collaboration corporatist elements which grew out of the syndicalist tradition. However unlike in Germany most of the radical Syndicalist elements within fascism were not pushed out of the party and remained largely loyal to Mussolini, with many of them still holding positions within the government such as Edmondo Rossoni who was a part of the Grand Council or in fascist intellectual circles like Ugo Spirto. Many of the Fascist Syndicalist were still seen as radicals within the fascist movements with some fascists accusing Ugo Spirito of being a communist.
Despite the hostility between Fascism and Communism, Fascist Italy was the first western nation to recognize the Soviet Union in February of 1924 and in 1933 signed the Italo Soviet Pact with both soon taking part in trade deals throughout the 1930s. Along with military leadership from both countries taking tours of Italy and the Soviet Union albeit both still saw the other ideology as enemies in their own countries. Mussolini in 1934 would even host meetings with anti-national socialist German conservative revolutionaries such as Ernst Niekisch who was sympathetic to the Soviet Union. However, relations would begin to break down with the start of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 with the Soviets backing the Communist and Italy backing the Nationalist. Relations would be destroyed in 1941 when Italy joined Nazi Germany in its war against the Soviet Union.
In 1943 Rossoni would vote to remove Mussolini from power but despite this the ideas of Fascist Syndicalism would regain prominence with the rise of the Italian Social Republic in 1943 with former leader of communist party Nicola Bombacci joining Mussolini new government hoping to rally the working class to their new cause however, the republic would collapse in spring of 1945 with Mussolini and Bombacci being executed by their former communist comrades.
With the establishing of the more moderate fascist Italian Social Movement in 1946 which was Pro NATO and anti-communist pushed out many of the more radical syndicalist elements of fascism which gave an opportunity for the new reestablished Italian Communist Party to absorb these elements. The Communist Party would start funding the anti-capitalist fascist and anti-west Pensiero Nazionale magazine headed by Italian journalist and intellectual Stanis Runnias in hopes of incorporating Runnias and his followers into party. Runnias would invite the communists and fascist syndicalist in 1950 to an armed revolt which did not pan out. The collaboration between the two would end in the early 1950s when Runnias refused to denounce Fascism with the magazine lasting all the way into 1970s. Runnias was not the only one who still maintained a more radical socialist economic element to his fascism in the cold war period there was also the Fascist politician Giorgio Pini who wrote for many Italian Fascist Journals and served as Ministry of Interior of the Italian Social Republic in 1944. After the war he tried to push MSI into a more socialist direction but failed and would leave the party and criticized the party for its ties to Pro American regimes like the military junta in Greece, Apartheid South Africa, and Salazar Portugal.
There is also of course one of the main organizers of the Italian Fascist/ National Socialist terrorist groups in the years of lead between 1969 to 1988 Franco Freda. Franco Freda had positive views of Maoism, and the Vietcong. Along with calling for nationalization and land redistribution. He also was a follower of traditional philosopher Julius Evola and leader of the Third Reich Adolf Hitler. He also considers the Palestinians and Vietnamese guerrillas as being more European than the French and Anglos who he viewed as selling their souls to Jewish capitalism. All of this got his ideology to be dubbed Nazi Maoism However, it is debatable on weather Freda truly belongs on the Pro Soviet Right as its been alleged that Freda and his groups were funded by the Italian SISMI and the CIA through the P2 Masonic Lodge to counter act the Soviets in Italy and Freda groups were often involve in conflict with communists such as the Red Brigades and often blamed communist and anarchist groups for terrorist attacks that Freda groups committed. Along with some of Freda associates who went on to support Pro American causes throughout the globe such as Stefano Delle Chiaie who went on to support pro NATO governments in South America such as Pinochet Chile. Another associate of Freda, Alessandro Alibrandi went on to fight for the Pro American/ Israeli Lebanese Phalange Militia in the Lebanese civil war and was even treated in an Israeli hospital. Freda also was able to avoid jail time in Italy and never had to flee the country like other who took part in the years of lead, which puts his beliefs into question.
In Spain dissident elements of the Spanish Falange who viewed Franco as betraying the ideas of Jose Antonio decided to align with the communist opposition groups. This group of Falangist was led by Dionisio Ridruejo Jiménez. Jimenez was a part of a collection of Spanish artists who wrote and drew in the Spanish civil war called Generation 36. Jimenez was also the co-writer of the Falange anthem called cara al sol.
During the war Dionisio Ridruejo Jimenez was a propagandist for the nationalist cause but was also in conflict with the more monarchist and military elements of the nationalist side. He ended up being censored for making nationalist propaganda in the Catalan language. A language that the nationalist generals wanted to eradicate. In 1941 he was dismissed from his post in the Propaganda minister by the Franco government for his support for National Socialist Germany in World War 2. He would go to serve in the Spanish volunteer group for Germany known as the Blue Division from 1941 to 42.
In 1955 Jimenez was completely disillusioned with Francisco Franco leadership of the country. Jimenez decided to form a club of Authentic falangists, communists, and democrats in opposition to Franco government. In 1957 Jimenez was briefly jailed for a time for his anti Franco activities. As time went on, he become more of a social democrat and ended up fleeing to Argentina in 1960. He would return to Spain in 1975 and died. However, his ideas of anti Franco Authentic Falangist still live on to this day in some groups like the Spanish political party Auténtica party.
Other dissident Falangist such as Gustavo Morales joined the dissident student group called Front of Student Unionist. After the return to democracy in Spain, in 1978 Morales apart of the Spanish Delegation of World Festival of Youth and Students that was being held in Cuba travel there along with some of his falangist friends. When they were at the festival, they saw Fidel Castro and gave him a Roman Salute, with Castro extending his hand and saying, “I know who you are.” Castro soon advised Morales to travel to the Che House/ Museum library. There Morales found Castro copy of Jose Antonio Primo De Rivera Completed Works. This made Morales believe that Castro was more of a pragmatic nationalist than a hardline communist, who simply adopted communism to get the backing of the Soviets against the United States who had dominated the island politics for many decades. Morales despite him being against anti-religious sentiments of the Cuban Government at the time still respected Castro and was sadden by Castro passing years later. Morales would return to Spain and continue to promote the ideas of Jose Antonio and Ramiro Ledesma Ramos, founding several foundations in the 1990s about the Falangist ideals.
The last of the European post war Fascist and National Socialist that took a Pro Soviet position is Francis Parker Yockey. Yockey was not born in Europe but America but did a lot of his writing and political activities in Europe and was one of few American thinkers of the right to have a positive position of the Soviet Union with the only other one being conservative and materialist philosopher George Santayana who like Yockey spent a lot of time in Europe most notably in Italy. Santayana also said this on the Soviet Union.
“I am not a conservative in the sense of being afraid of revolutions, like Hobbes, or thinking order, in the sense of peace, the highest good; and I am not at all attached to things as they are, or as they were in my youth. But I love order in the sense of organized, harmonious, consecrated living: and for this reason, I sympathize with the Soviets and Fascists and the Catholics, but not at all with the liberals. I should sympathize with the Nazis too, if their system were, even in theory, founded on reality; but it is Nietzschean, founded on Will: and therefore a sort of romanticism gone mad, rather than a serious organization of material forces—which would be the only way, I think, of securing moral coherence. . . .I hope that (the Soviets) may succeed in establishing a great new order of society, definite, traditional and self-justified.”
Unlike Yockey Santayana was not as involved with political action nor was Santayana a supporter of national socialism or antisemitism like Yockey. Yockey is also one of the most mysterious out of everyone in this article as no one knows the true extent of his ties go to the communist world let alone his ties to the fascist/ national socialist underworld. Yockey got involved with politics in the early 1930s in America as a Marxist originally when he was attending University of Michigan. When Yockey was attending university was around the rise of Adolf Hitler National Socialism and Yockey quickly became fascinated with Hitler. Even declaring he would never dine with Jews or African Americans. Yockey would also become fascinated with Conservative Revolutionary theorist Oswald Spengler and his ideas of civilization, Prussian Socialism, and cyclical history. He would soon go on to collaborate with pro Hitler groups like the Sliver Shirts and German American Bund. He would also publish articles for Father Coughlin Social Justice Journal and was also believed to be involved with the occult.
When America joined World War 2 in 1941, Yockey faked a mental illness to get out of military service and is believed to have gone on to help German spies who landed in the US and Mexico and was holding meetings with them. After the war during the Nuremberg trials, Yockey was able to become part of the war crimes investigation with Yockey hope of getting SS general Otto Ohlendorf out of war crime charges by leaking US documents that could help his case. Not long after Yockey was fired from his position. Yockey would go on to live in Ireland and would go onto write his most famous book Imperium published in 1948 which is largely seen as a sequel to Oswald Spengler Decline of The West. The book was also very critical of the United States, with Yockey seeing America as an Inherently rootless and liberal nation. To Yockey America embodied the worse aspects of modernity. Surprising Yockey viewed race as more spiritual than biological subject which is closer to Spengler than Hitler view on race despite praising the rise of Hitler and his in the 1933 election in the book. Yockey was also very supportive of a unified European empire seeing post World War 2 Europe as divided and occupied by the US and USSR but seeing the US as the worse of the two. Yockey wrote Imperium under the name Ulick Varange which symbolizes Ireland with Russia. Showing that Yockey already had some sympathies for the Soviets.
Yockey would go onto in 1950s to help the Nasser government in Egypt write anti-Zionist materials and live there for a time and is said to have meet Nasser personally and even formed ties with a Jihadist group known as the Muslim Brotherhood. Yockey would go to Czechoslovakia in 1952 to witness one of Stalin purges of cosmopolitans and mostly Jewish elements within the communist world which Yockey later wrote an article about titled “What is behind the hanging of the eleven Jews in Prague?” In which Yockey believes that under Stalin the Soviet Union had thrown off its international and “Jewish” element and has embraced a form of Pan Slavism and that the Soviet Union was an ally in the fight to liberate Europe from the United States with Yockey advocating a Fascist Communist alliance. Yockey is believed to have made many trips to eastern Europe throughout the 1950s and even believed to have been to Moscow and have been recruited by Soviet intelligence. Yockey would also travel back in forth between Europe and America trying to form connections amongst as many fascist groups as possible to help overthrow the United States at home and in Europe. Yockey successfully formed ties with German Socialist Reich party and formed his own group the European Liberation Front. Yockey even tried to get British Fascist Oswald Mosely to review Imperium, but Mosely refused seeing it as waste of time. With Mosely seeing Soviet Russia as a greater threat than the US. Yockey would often travel under fake names and identities making him hard to track and with no one knowing the full extent of his ties to the Red East. However, his luck would run out when he would be arrested in Oakland California by the FBI in 1960 and would commit suicide soon after in hopes of not revealing information about his activities and to keep other fascists and national socialists out of the FBI hands.
Yockey was not the only one who wanted a United Europe and saw that Western Europe was dominated and controlled by the United States amongst the Nationalist scenes. In fact, there was a continental party of European nationalists mentioned in beginning of this article called National Europe Party. Who ran under the motto “Neither Washington nor Moscow” and is where many of the followers of Conservative Revolution would get there start in post-World War 2 politics. Intellectuals such as Jeans Francois Thiriart and Alain De Benoist would get there start or restart in the pan European nationalist scene, that would eventually have a more Pro Soviet position. There was also Otto Strasser who had been a part of the Pro Soviet Right before World War 2 and still would be after. Even debating Oswald Mosely over the issue and even started a small German party called German Social Union and would have contact with Jean Francois Thiriart. Other than that, Strasser was not as important in the political scene as he was in Pre-world War 2 Germany and would die in 1975 with his party having very little influence amongst German nationalists. The real important figures are Thiriart and Benoist. It should be noted that both did not start out with a Pro Soviet positions. In fact Thiriart was one who coined the term “Neither Washington nor Moscow” but both end up coming to a pro soviet position and both collaborated with pro soviet movements in Russia after the fall of USSR.
Thiriart start in politic began in in 1930s as a Belgian antifascist socialist, however by 1940 Thiriart became associated with a group of leftists that were influenced by Hamburg National Bolsheviks i.e., Heinrich Laufenberg and Fritiz Wolfiem and took on a more nationalist position but unlike the Hamburg National Bolsheviks the group took on a pro national socialist position believing that Germany had the potential of unifying Europe. Thirart would join the Belgian branch of the Waffen SS during World War 2 and would serve time in prison for it after the war. Thirart would go on to abandon politics for over a decade and would later criticize and denounce National Socialist Germany anti Slavic policies and geopolitical strategy that led to Germany to take on the Soviet Union and everyone else all at once which led to Germany destruction and Europe being divided by foreign powers such as the USA and Soviet Union. Thiriart believed that both world wars were civil wars in Europe that coasted Europe dearly.
When Thiriart returned to politics in the 1960 not on the Pro Soviet Right but on the side of the European Belgian imperialist group Mouvement d’Action Civique or MAC that sought to keep Congo under Belgian control and worked with similar groups like the French Secret Armed Organization. MAC would also be a part of the Pan European National Party of Europe. All of them believed that if Western Europe colonies were to become independent that western Europe would be even more be controlled and reliant on the United States. As Thiriart began to see the colonies become independent, Western Europe becoming more under the control of US and piety nationalism of German and Italians inside National Party of Europe. Along with Italian MSI supporting NATO made Thiriart rethink his strategy of how to make Europe independent of the United States with Thiriart soon founding the Pan European Jeune Europe with that goal in 1963. Instead of viewing the anti-imperialist movements throughout the world as enemies but rather as friends that were in a similar struggle against the United States. Thiriart soon formed ties formed ties National Liberation Front of Algeria, Vietcong in Vietnam, Palestine Liberation Organization of Palestine, the Black Panther Party in the United States, and many others with many of these groups contributing to Thiriart journal. Thiriart also had ties to Nicolae Ceausescu Romania who Thirart became an admirer of. Thiriart also became friends with Juan Peron Argentina with Peron reading Juene Europe journal while in exile in Spain and became friends with Thirart. Thiriart also made connections with many Arab nationalist states such as Egypt, Syria, and Iraq. Along with China were Thiriart met prime minister Zhou Enlai.
Thiriart hope with meeting all these group was too forming a beneficial relationship where Jeune Europe would be able to have their militants trained and experience combat with these groups and eventually have these members return to Europe where they would take back Europe from both the United States control and negotiate with the Soviets for eastern Europe. There are few examples of Jeune Europe members fighting for these groups the most famous Roger Coudroy died fighting with the Palestine Liberation Organization against the Israeli government. Coudroy was the first European to die in the conflict. Thiriart was also belived to be an adviser to PLO for a time.
Juene Europe had members all throughout western Europe from Belgium, Italy, Spain, Austria, and France but only had around 100 members in each country, but their journals tended to have a readership of several thousand. The group participated in strikes, street activism, and had connections with sections of the European Third position like Otto Strasser, Oswald Mosely, and Hans Ulrich Rudel. Despite connections to both communist and fascist groups Thiriart rejected both Fascism and Marxism instead promoting an ideology called National Communitarianism which advocated for a Pan European secular and autarkic society where major industries would be nationalize and the rest would be in hands of small businesses.
Thiriart rejected communism for its internationalism and materialism. Fascism and national socialism where both rejected for support of piety nationalism instead of Greater Europe and for fascism more theocratic tendencies. Thiriart at first supported a more racial based nationalism but according to Political scientist Alexander Jacob supported integration of Turks and Arabs residing in Europe later on in life. Thiriart believed that only a unified Europe could compete with both the USA and USSR. Only through Europe becoming a large country could Europe have the resources to compete with other great powers. However, by 1969 Thiriart would retire from politics for a time due to the lack of growth within his organization, no money and meddling from Soviet Union to make the Arab countries not support Thiriart ambitions of supporting the Liberation of Europe.
Thiriart would be out of the political game for over 10 years. Largely focusing on his profession of Optometry in Brussel. Largely trying to avoid those former members of Juene Europe who tried to have him join politics again. In 1981 Thiriart office would be attacked causing Thiriart to rejoin the political struggle. Thiriart in an uncompleted book called “The Euro Soviet Empire From Vladivostok to Dublin” would advocate for a unified Europe with the Soviet Union. Europe and the Soviet Union would be stronger together then fighting each other. Thiriart in 1984 would also help to set up the National Bolshevik National European Communitarian Party with Luc Michel another Belgian National Bolshevik. In 1991 Thiriart would lead the European National Liberation Front the only true successor to Juene Europe. In 1992 still in belief that Russia and Europe would only have great future united traveled to Russia to meet with anti-Yeltsin opposition leaders such as Gennady Zyuganov and Alexander Dugin. Dying from a stroke shortly after returning home.
Jean Francis Thirart wasn’t the only National Bolshevik at this time Christian Bouchet once a French Monarchist and later French Fascist would also start to adopt more National Bolshevik ideals in the 1980s to 1990s and would lead several minor French National Bolshevik/ Third Position radical groups in France such as Unite Radicale and Nouvelle Resistance. That was not only National Bolshevik but was also anti clerical and supported environmentalism.
There were also others outside the National Bolshevik scene in Western Europe like French intellectual behind French New Right or GRECE Alain De Benoist who was writing around same time as Thiriart during the 1960s. Like Jean Francis Thiriart, Alain De Benoist wanted a unified Europe that would ally with the third world against liberal imperialism. Benoist like Thiriart believed in a third way economic model between communism and capitalism while at the same time distancing themselves from older third way ideals like Fascism and National Socialism. What separates Thirart and Benoist is that Benoist wanted a unified Europe that would preserve all the unique ethnic identities while Thiriart wanted to assimilate them all into one people. Benoist is also a pagan and heavily critical of Christianity while Thiriart was a secularist. Thiriart was also more inspired by revolutionary Jacobinism ideas like secularism while Benoist spent most of his writings deconstructing liberal’s ideas like democracy, capitalism, globalism, and human rights. Not to say that Thiriart would disagree with some of these positions.
At first Benoist like Thiriart was critical of Soviet Union and sought an alliance with China to help counterbalance American and Soviet Hegemony but as time went on Benoist believed that American liberalism was a greater threat than Soviet Russia. When the Soviet Union finally collapsed in 1991. A year later both Thiriart and Benoist would go meet with Soviet/ Nationalist oppositions to Boris Yeltsin. They would meet with Alexander Dugin of the National Bolshevik Party and Gennady Zyuganov of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.
There were of course many people outside of Europe who held nationalist or even social conservative beliefs that sided with the Soviet Union or communist groups inside their own country for variety of reasons. For example, in the Lebanese Civil War 1975 to 1991 many secular Arab Nationalist like the Baath Party, Nasserist’s and Syrian Social Nationalist Party sided with the Lebanese Communist Party and other communist groups like Popular Front of Liberation of Palestine to fight against the Israeli invasion of the country and against their Maronite backed forces. Islamic organizations such as Hezbollah and Amal would also join this lose coalition to fight against Israeli which lasted all the way up to year 2000 with the Hezbollah coalition being victorious.
Prior to this in 1967 many of Arab Nationalist country such as Nasserist Egypt whose leader Gamal Abdel Nasser was a former member of the fascist Young Egypt Party, sided with Syria and Jordan to go to war with Israel with the backing of Soviet Union. This became known as the 6-day war which was a complete disaster to the Arab nations. The Soviet Union due to this war ended up severing all diplomatic ties with Israel.
Even in the Jewish nation of Israel there was a section of the right that was pro soviet most notably the militant organization known as the Lehi, a Ultra Zionist group that took influence from Fascist Italy and wanted to ally with the Axis power in the World War 2. In the middle of World War 2 the Lehi switched and became a pro soviet group. In hopes that Soviet Union would recognize them as fighters against the British who occupied Palestine/ modern Israel at the time. Of course, this did not happen, but the Lehi still played a major role in establishing modern Israel. Brutally fighting off the Palestinians being responsible for several massacres most notable the Deir Yassin massacre during the mandatory Palestine Civil War in the late 1940s. Even one of Lehi former members Yitzhak Shamir became the Prime Minster of Israel during the 1980s. Others like Nathan Yellin-Mor founded the Semitic Action party that hope to bring together Arabs and Jews into a confederation where both groups could belong instead of Lehi original goal of expelling the Arab population. Semitic Action even supported the Arab Nationalist FLN in the Algerian War for independence in hopes that the two countries would become friends afterwards.
In Latin America while there was hardly a right that could be considered Pro Soviet in most of Latin America. There was those that had sympathies for Castro Cuba such as populist Juan Peron leader of Argentina from 1946 to 1952 and briefly from 1973 to 74. Peron had supported Castro out of hope that he would help liberate the continent from US influence. Castro friend and fellow revolutionary Che Guevara was supportive of Peron anti-imperialist policies and denounced the coup against Peron in 1952. While in Exile in Franco’s Spain, Peron met with Che Guevara and tried to convince him not to go to Bolivia as he saw it as being Che death bed. Peron was proven correct on October of 1967 when Che Guevara was executed by the Bolivian military. Peron had many supporters of in Argentina of a Marxist persuasion such as Peronist Armed Forces and Montoneros.
On Fidel Castro, prior to Castro becoming a communist in his high school days at a Jesuit school Castro adopted Falangist and national syndicalist ideas of Jose Antonio Primo De Rivera. Which was Castro first introduction to anti-capitalist nationalist politics along with Hispanidad and anti-imperialism, which help to shape Castro later communist world view.
Post-Soviet Russia 1992 to Present
After the collapse of the Soviet Union the Russian economy was in complete chaos with many Russians being in poverty and foreign corporations swallowing up many portions of the Russian economy. The mass privatization that happened under Russian President Boris Yeltsin would be called shock therapy economics. Which was a complete disaster for Russia with large capitalist oligarchy being formed while the majority of people lost everything, along with shortages that made the situation worse. Many Russians also felt humiliated as they went from a great superpower to an impoverished nation. This caused nationalist sentiments of both Soviet, Russian monarchist and other nationalist tendencies to not only rise but to banded together for a brief time against the Neo Liberalism of Boris Yeltsin.
Many of the leaders of the opposition would be figures who were against the Soviet Union dissolving such as Colonel General Albert Makashov, people’s deputy Sergey Baburin, First Secretary of Komsomol Gennady Zyuganov, and Soviet General Valdislav Achalov. Other where dissidents in the Soviet Union who later regretted its downfall or saw that these Neo Soviets as allies at least in the fight against Yeltsin such as leaders of the leaders of the National Bolshevik Party, Eduard Limnov and Alexander Dugin. These figures would go on to establish the National Salvation Front, a coalition of communist, socialist, conservatives, democrats, agrarians, orthodox nationalist, monarchist, national socialist, national Bolsheviks, and others in opposition against Boris Yeltsin. This opposition would be dubbed the Red Brown alliance.
The National Salvation Front would organize mass protest against Yeltsin regime. Some leaders of the front such as Gennady Zyuganov and Sergey Baburin would create mass political parties like the Communist Party of the Russian federation and Russian All-People’s Union that would win seats in the Russian parliament called the Congress of People Deputies. Other leaders such as former General Albert Makashov and Valdislav Achalov would help to form the paramilitary wing of the group. Other such as Alexander Dugin, Yegor Letov, and Eduard Limnov would be the more activist, cultural, and intellectual side of the movement. Dugin had made contact with Western European intellectuals such as Alain De Benoist and Jean Francis Thirirart in 1989 and invited them and others to Russia to get support for the cause. Dugin hopes with forming these connections was not only to find support for the National Salvation Front cause at home but also to help to organize and unify other anti-liberal groups globally against the United States. The United States is viewed by Dugin and the National Salvation Front as the center of global liberalism that is being forced upon the world. Dugin also wrote many intellectual articles and helped to write the Communist Party of the Russian Federation political program. Limonov and Letov would organize the protest and cultural events such as music concerts.
As Yeltsin policies of privatization came into effect prices skyrocketed, shortages and unemployment grew, which only made the National Salvation Front and other Russian anti-liberal/ anti-Yeltsin groups stronger. Eventually these group end up controlling most of the Russian Parliament and started to block Yeltsin policies. This enraged Yeltsin and the relations between the people deputies and president would continue to grow worse. Eventually even Yeltsin own Vice president Alexander Rutskoy denounced Yeltsin policies as “economic genocide.” Yeltsin would expand presidential power to pass his shock therapy reforms, which were viewed by the parliament and vice president as unconstitutional. Both sides would start to ignore or reject the other laws, orders, and decrees. Yeltsin would have a new constitution written that would have abolished the parliament, obviously the parliament did not vote for it.
On September 21st, 1993, Boris Yeltsin would dissolve the parliament which was unconstitutional and in turn the Russian parliament would impeach Yeltsin but both sides rejected the other authority. Soon supporters of parliament from a variety political persuasion from communist and nationalist would go to parliament in Moscow. This also included paramilitary groups such as National Communist National Salvation paramilitary wing led by Albert Makashov and the National Socialist group Russian National Unity led by Alexander Barkashov. Many Soviet veterans and former members of KGB would also defend the parliament. The police as well as most of the military and liberals would be on the side of Yeltsin. On September 28 the first clashes would break out between the opposing side. The fighting would continue for a week with both sides trying to take control of the capital city of Moscow with almost 150 lives lost. On October 4th of 1993 the parliament surrendered but many supporters and congressmen would not face prison time as Yeltsin would eventually provide amnesty. However, some of groups involved were banned such as the National Salvation Front. The remnants of the soviet system where also dismantled.
Despite the failure of removing Yeltsin this did not end the Red Brown alliance. As many of the problems of Yeltsin presidency that originally formed the alliance where still there and would get worse with the outbreak of separatist insurgency in Chechnya that started in December of 1994. Despite some of the nationalist and communist political parties being banned, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation and the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia a Pan Slavic Monarchist nationalist group (who also supported the 1991 coup against Gorbachev) took back control of parliament in the election cycle in 1994.
Gennady Zyuganov the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation who was also a Nationalist and Social Conservative would run in the presidential elections of 1996 against Yeltsin. Zyuganov not only had wide support from the Russian population but also from many parts of the Russian Right, such as Russian conservative Sergey Baburin and his political All Russian People Union. Despite Yeltsin only having a six percent approval rating this would not be an easy task for Zyuganov who had to go up against the Oligarchs of Russia, foreign oligarchs such as George Soros and the American government who threw everything, they had at Zyuganov from slander from the media to elector fraud, intimidation, and spending over 200 million dollars on Yeltsin campaign. All of the interference allowed Yeltsin to win another term. To make matters worse for the Pro Soviet Right and their allies many of the groups started to go their own way such as the National Bolshevik Party who endorsed Yeltsin in hopes of accelerating Russia into a Revolution. Alexander Dugin would leave the NBP a few years later over ideological disagreements and personal differences with Eduard Limnov and other members. As the situation look grim for many Russian Nationalist, they would soon find a former KGB agent who was supported by the Russian Oligarchs to be an unexpected ally. This ex KGB agent was none other than Vladimir Putin.
Before the fall of the Soviet Union Vladimir Putin was a KGB agent who was stationed in East Germany allegedly supported the West German militant group Red Army Faction with safe houses in East Germany. According to Historian Mark Felton Putin allegedly was also the handler for German National Socialist Rainer Sonntag. The KGB and Putin objective of supporting such groups and individuals if it is true, was to destabilize West Germany just like how the US was supporting militant groups in the eastern bloc to destabilize the region. Putin also spied in West Germany at one point. He also recruited members for the KGB in East Germany. Putin in 1989 during the fall of the eastern bloc in East Germany was at the KGB HQ where he was gathering and destroying secret KGB files so that the files did not fall into Western hands.
One would think the Vladimir Putin would be a hardline communist, but he supported the reformist Mikhail Gorbachev and resigned from the KGB when the 1991 coup took place. When the Soviet Union fell Putin saw this as a complete geopolitical disaster for Russia as Russia became a lot weaker both internally and externally because of the collapse. That said Putin accepted that the USSR was not coming back even said that many of founding ideas that Vladimir Lenin had for the USSR where a ticking time bomb ready to go off such as the Soviet Republics had equal rights to each other and could withdrawal from the Soviet Union at any time. Putin did agree with Joseph Stalin that the Soviet Union should be a unified country with Russia being at the center of it. Putin also saw the Soviet Union economic policy also contributed to the collapse of the country. Along with also disagreeing with the Soviet Union anti-religious stance. Putin could be best described as being a part of the Post-Soviet Right Wing a Russian who saw the importance of Soviet Union but recognized it had immense flaws and could not be revived.
Putin would after the fall of the Soviet Union be an adviser to St. Peterburg Mayor on foreign relations and also help to organize the local branch of the liberal conservative party called Our Home Russia in 1995. In 1997 Putin would move to Moscow and be appointed by Boris Yeltsin to his Presidential Staff. Then in 1998 Yeltsin appointed Putin to be the director of the FSB, the successor to the KGB. Yeltsin and some of the Russian Oligarchs such as Boris Berezovsky wanted Putin to take Yeltsin place as president. Putin at first hesitated to accept the offer but eventually agreed. In 1999 Putin became president of the Russian Federation after Yeltsin resigned then won the presidential election in 2000. Many people in Russia thought that Putin would be just like Yeltsin and that’s what the oligarchs had hope for. This would be proven wrong. while Putin for his first term started to put charges against many of the oligarchs such as money laundering and bribery with some being arrested or fleeing the country to Western Europe such as Boris Berezovsky. While Putin still governed as a Liberal Conservative, he did end up also nationalizing the oil industry in Russia taking it out of the Oligarchs hand and Putin turned into a national conservative as time moved on. Putin would also successfully beat the Chechen insurgents that where destabilizing Russia. Due to all of these successes Putin has maintain his power to this very day. Putin would also maintain the CSTO a defensive organization of Russia and other countries in the region and would create in 2015 the Eurasian Economic Union. Putin would also support separatist groups in Georgia and Ukraine to fight off western influence in the region. Along with strengthening alliances with Illiberal countries such as China, Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Belarus, Nicaragua, and many others. In 2022 when Russia officially launched it military operations in Ukraine, Putin would call on an alliance of conservative and socialist forces globally to counter act Western capitalism which is seen as a socially and economically destructive force to Russia and the Third world.
These changes that Putin had made and him moving away from US and liberal influences made some on Pro Soviet Right to jump ship such as Alexander Dugin who became a supporter of Putin and started form his own ideology called the 4th political theory. Others such as Gennady Zyuganov, Sergey Baburin, and Albert Makashov would still be opposed to Putin as not going far enough with dismantling capitalism and liberalism but would support him on certain issues such as the ban on LGBT propaganda and military intervention in Ukraine. The Communist Party of Russian Federation is the second largest party next to Putin National Conservative party called United Russia. The Communist Party has maintained a coalition of various left- and right-wing groups called the National Patriotic Forces of Russia, which includes groups such as Left Front, A Just Russia, and Great Russia. The Communist party also maintains it nationalist and social conservative positions with the party even collaborating with the Orthodox Church.
Eduard Limonov and National Bolshevik Party would still be opposed to Putin. The NBP would drift from allying itself with Right wing to more left wing and liberal groups. Even at one-point Limonov in one of his manifestos called for the complete abolition of the old order, hierarchies and the establishment of a direct democracy in Russia. The NBP even broke into Russian government buildings throughout the 2000s and even tried to control parts of Kazakhstan. All of this got the party banned in 2007. Afterwards Limonov would create a new party in 2010 called the Other Russia Party later to be called The Other Russia Party of E.V Limonov that went back to NBP roots in the 1990s being a balance of right and left ideals. While the party would still be opposed to Putin but like the communist party supported Putin on certain issue such as the war in Ukraine. The group formed their own battalion called the Interbrigades that fights in Ukraine to this day. One of its most iconic members is Beness Aijo or Black Lenin a half Ugandan half Russian man who was born in Latvia and has fought for the Russian separatist in Ukraine. Limonov would die in 2020 due to medical complications with his group still existing to this day changing the group name to the Other Russia of E. V Limonov in honor of their former leader.
Sergey Baburin would go on to establish the political party called Rodina which is the 6th largest party in Russia but has moved away from its red brown stance and is in support of the decommunization of Russia. The party is also in alliance with Putin United Russia. Baburin would leave the party and revive his old party All Russian People Union and would run in 2018 presidential election but lost to Putin.
Alexander Barkashov the leader of National Socialist paramilitary organization Russian National Unity is still alive to this day. Despite his group disbanding and splitting off into many pieces. He still has heavy influence in not only the Russian National Socialist scene but also in the larger Russian nationalist scene. Former members of RNU would form their own combat group that fights in Ukraine and one of RNU former members Pavel Gubarev was the first governor of Russian separatist Donetsk Peoples Republic. While Gubarev still remains in contact with Barkashov and other remnants of the RNU he moderated his ideology and said that he was more of a center left nationalist. Barkashov also has contact with the Russian Orthodox Army a religious battalion of Russian separatist in Ukraine.
Alexander Dugin with his 4th political theory or 4pt would become one of the most popular intellectual from Russia and arguably one of most influential anti- liberal thinkers of the 21st century. Dugin ideas of Eurasianism, multipolarity and alliance of anti-liberal forces have not only been echoed by Putin but also other world leaders from China, and Nicaragua. Dugin 4th political theory is a anti liberal ideology that goes beyond according to Dugin the 3 other major ideologies of liberalism, communism, and fascism with 4pt rejecting those ideologies notions of universalism, progress, and equalitarianism. Dugin believes that there are multiple civilizations, and that one civilization should not have all the power to sway the world in one direction.
Dugin has been a professor at Moscow University and one of the heads Russia tv station called Tsargrad Tv. He is also the head of the Geopolitical journal Geopolitika and has been interview by many Tv stations and youtubers. Not to mention Dugin has written over a dozen books that have become popular in many pro-Russian circles. Of course, this fame has also brought tragic consequences such as an assassination attempt by Ukrainian Neo Nazis in August of 2022 which led to the death of his daughter Darya Dugina, who was also involved in politics. The motivation of the terrorist for trying to assassinate Dugin was for both Dugin and Dugina support for Russia in the war in Ukraine. However, the assassination attempts only gave Dugin and his family prominence amongst the Russian leadership with Putin awarding Dugina with a medal called the Order of Courage. Despite claims of Westerns and Ukrainian National socialists accusing Dugin of being a Putin brainchild years, prior to the assassination attempt Dugin had never been mentioned by Putin or even meet him not to mention Dugin lost his university job in 2014, which would be weird for Russian government supposed top ideologue to lose his job at a top university. However, since the attack on his life and the taking of his daughter life, Dugin probably has more influence now on Putin then he ever did before. With Dugin being invited to many major Russian conservative conferences such as the Siberian Form of The World Russian People Council.
Despite all these individuals and groups going their separate ways after the banning of National Salvation Front in 1993 along with the 30th anniversary of Russian Constitutional crisis or Black October coming up next year. All of those that formed or fought with the Front, have had a lasting impact on Russian politics with most major parties in Russia being some mixture of anti-capitalism and social conservative nationalism. Many of these groups and their followers also have meet again on the battlefields of Ukraine fighting with each other one more time.
It may not seem like it to the establishment conservatives who watch Fox News, Glen Beck, PragerU, and conservative talk radio but there has been a growing number of people on the “American Right” who have Russophile and see the mainstream American establishment such as the government and its corporate backers as the center point of globalism and social decadences. It ranges from conservative magazines and commentators such as Chronicles, John Doyle, Gonzalo Lira, Nick Fuentes, and Steve Bannon to white nationalist such as Jared Taylor, Matthew Raphael Johnson, and Eric Striker. All of them having varying degrees of sympathies to Russia. Even this blog an American conservative socialist blog is a testament to this move to Russia as a counterbalance to globalism and a bastion of conservative anti-capitalist thought at the very least. Even with conservative magazines and commentators who aren’t pro Russia such as The American Conservative and Tucker Carlson still have not supported American support for Ukraine believing its only making the situation worse and the funding could be better spent on problems at home. All of these positions would have been unheard of if not blasphemy to the American Right only a little over 30 years ago. There also a trend of American social conservatives and nationalist converting to Russian Orthodoxy as it seen as more tradition form of Christianity.
In the 2020s there has been the emergence of Patriotic Socialism and Maga communism which is a more patriotic and moderately social conservative form of Marxist Leninism that has sympathies for former president Donald Trump and tries to appeal to Trumps base. Patriotic socialism and Maga communism were created by Russia Today journalist Caleb Maupin and YouTube commentators Haz and Jackson Hinkle. Maupin has meet Alexander Dugin on one occasion and Haz claims to be influenced by the man with both seeing him as an anti-imperialist Russian traditionalist. In other words, Maga Communism is the closes thing to an authentic American form of National Bolshevism.
Oddly enough even among some of those on the Pro Ukraine side in America such as White nationalist Richard Spencer supports the war in hopes of it leading to a revival of the US and Europe. Along with a wakeup call for them to throw off social liberalism and other issues that could be hindering Western Civilization. Which sounds somewhat similar to Nikolay Ustryalov position of supporting the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War who hope the Bolsheviks would revive Russia into a great empire once again. Richard Spencer former Palo conservative mentor Paul Gottfried who also takes a pro Ukrainian position on the war has stated in past lectures that the Soviet Union and its socialist allies were not only more socially conservative than the US but also that the US was a breeding ground for cultural progressivism due to the US support for globalization and universal rights. Gottfried has even said that he even has a soft spot for old school soviet style communist and rather have them around then the modern American Left despite Gottfried disliking the Soviet system. He was also friends with Stalinist Eugene Genovese when he worked at the University of Rochester who Gottfried saw as a conservative Stalinist.
Whether there’ll be an American form of the Red Brown alliance that still exist in Russia remains to be seen. One thing is certain to the writer of this blog is that as long as America is the center point of globalization, woke capital, social liberalism and has declining economic conditions in the states will only grow the Pro Russian Right as well as an anti-capitalist right and a socially conservative left.
The Soviet Union 1945 to 1991
Eastern Bloc and the Cold War
The Conservative Revolution in Germany 1918 to 1932 by Armin Mohler and Karlheinz Weissmann
Western Europe and the Cold War
George Santayana on Liberalism and the Spiritual Life
Otto Strasser’s “New Europe,” Part 1 | Counter-Currents
Otto Strasser’s “New Europe,” Part 2 | Counter-Currents
The Great Nation by Jean Francis Thiriart
Mussolini’s Intellectuals: Fascist Social and Political Thought by James A Gregor
Outside of Europe
Post-Soviet Russia 1992 to Present
America and Conclusion
The Strange Death of Marxism by Paul Gottfried
Encounters: My Life with Nixon, Marcuse, and Other Friends and Teachers by Paul Gottfried