There has been a lot of talk from some countries about a multipolar world recently from Russian president Vladimir Putin to president of China Xi Jinping to Latin American leaders like Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua. We also recently seen the decline of American Liberal global hegemony from the fall of Afghanistan to the Gulf States deciding to cut oil production even after the US government told them not to, to seeing growing influence of China, Russia, and India on the world stage and the growth of economic/ security unions to rival the EU and NATO, such as BRICS, CSTO, and SCO.
What is exactly Multipolarity? First, we should define its opposite Unipolarity. Unipolarity is a world where there is only one center of global power that controls were most of world goes in terms of economics, culture, and government. The best example of this is the 1990s and 2000s United States where the USA was the sole superpower that could spread its ideology liberalism across world with no major power preventing it and at the expense of those regions’ autonomy, and traditions. The US could also decide the fate on what country would win in a conflict such as in the Gulf War and Yugoslav Civil Wars.
To many inside the American intellectual ruling class such as Francis Fukuyama believed that the United States had reached the end of history where the USA had reach peak of human evolution when it came to government meaning liberalism was highest stage of society and the rest of the world would eventually arrive to America “enlightened” ideals as well. Some within the ruling class and intellectual class like Irving Kristol the founder of Neo Conservatism or speculator and founder of the Open Society Foundation George Soros wanted to speed up this process by the US engaging in conflict and regime changes in countries that were illiberal such as Iraq, Serbia, Libya Iran, North Korea, and many more.
Multipolarity is the exact opposite of unipolarity. Instead of just one civilization pole of power that governs were the world is going. In multipolarity there are many civilizational poles that are not govern by the same ideology but rather each civilization will be based on its own customs, culture, religion, traditions, economics, and government model that will be right for their civilization. In other words, Multipolarity rejects universalism of all kinds whether it be liberalism or universalistic ideologies that seeks to dominant the world and force the world to go its way and nothing else. It also means that multipolarity rejects the idea of globalization and one world government were peoples, cultures, and traditions are destroyed for a one world blob that has no identity.
It should also be noted that multipolarity is not bipolarity either were 2 great power control the fate of the world like during the Cold War in the mid to late 20th century. There will not just be two civilizations but 5 or more. It should also be noted on what is meant by civilizations. Civilizations are large spaces that go beyond the nation state where people in these regions share a history, religion, similar culture and in some cases a similar racial background. Some examples of these ideas are Pan Europeanism, Eurasianism and Pan Arabism with main theorist behind the idea of great spaces is the political theorist Carl Schmitt. The reason for these great civilizations instead of small nation states is because the smaller nation states will always be eventually dominated or must rely on the bigger nations because they have a lot more resources and military strength.
So why should a conservative support multipolarity? I think it very obvious that multipolarity is very much compatible with conservative ideals whether it be a Russell Kirk or Richard Weaver form of American Conservatism to someone from the German Conservative Revolution like Arthur Moller van Den Bruck or Ernst Niekisch. Whether it be multipolarity support for decentralization of world power, to support for civilization being based on their own traditions. To multipolarity rejection of universal capitalism and liberalism. Which is very similar to Russell Kirk Ten Conservative Principles particularly point 1 existence of enduring moral order, 2 adherents to customs, 3 principles of prescription, 5 principle of variety, 6 principle of imperfectability, and 9 restraints upon power. Multipolarity respects the ideas of civilization being based on there own moral orders, customs and restraint upon power on a global level were each civilization will put a check on each others power. In fact, Alexander Dugin the main modern theorist behind multipolarity has taken influence from the German conservative revolution and from American Conservative Samuel Huntington. Dugin has also said positive things about all thinkers mentioned above and Dugin himself has described himself as a conservative on many occasions especially in 4th political theory which is an inherently a revolutionary conservative ideology that seeks to free the world from global liberal domination. Dugin has also written against nominalism like Richard Weaver and has admiration for rural life.
To Dugin Multipolarity allow all civilizations to keep their own traditions and preserve their own way of life. Along with having these civilizations to determine their own fate and destiny. We are already starting to see the countries supporting multipolarity returning to their religious traditions such as Russian Orthodoxy in Russia and Confucianism in China or are already traditional societies like Iran. As liberalism continues to wane, we expect not only multipolarity to continue but also with more traditional ways remerging, with a better understanding of avoiding the mistakes of the past. Social Conservatives of all stripes have everything to gain from a multipolar world coming about as it gives Conservatives a chance to preserve or revive their own customs, traditions, and not be under thumb of a liberal hegemon that has no respect for these ideals. Only through multipolarity can a Conservative world be born.
The Theory of a Multipolar World by Alexander Dugin
4th Political Theory by Alexander Dugin
10 Conservative Principles by Russell Kirk
THE MANIFESTO OF GREAT AWAKENING. AGAINST GREAT RESET. by Alexander Dugin
The End of History? By Francis Fukuyama
Putin Says formation of multipolar world is irreversible
SAUDI ARABIA’S OPEC+ DECISION DIDN’T SURPRISE OBJECTIVE OBSERVERS by andrew korybko https://katehon.com/en/article/saudi-arabias-opec-decision-didnt-surprise-objective-observers
Return to orthodoxy in Russia
Return of Confucius in China
China state media CGTN promoting Confucius https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N0xR8wcBNWg